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Sobieski at Vienna 1683 / Odsiecz Wiedeńska 1683

No copyright infringement intended. "Bóg i Pan nasz na wieki błogosławiony dał zwycięstwo i sławę narodowi naszemu, o jakiej wieki przeszłe nigdy nie słyszały" - Jan III Sobieski. Vienna was a strong fortress, but by the end of August 1683, the city was in mortal danger of collapsing to the Turkish attack. Food and ammunition were inadequate, The Ottoman siege cut virtually every means of food supply into Vienna, and the garrison and civilian volunteers suffered extreme casualties. Fatigue became such a problem that Ernst Rüdiger Graf von Starhemberg ordered any soldier found asleep on watch to be shot. The siege by the Islamic Turks of the Christian city of Vienna in 1683 was a watershed incident in European history. Had the Turks been successful, there well might have been no Christian Europe to dominate the world stage for the next 300 years. Facing that magnitude of threat, European powers that were normally jealous and hostile to one another suppressed their mutual antagonisms to defeat the armies of Islam and their brutal Tartar Allies. Before he set out, Sobieski had sent a letter to Innocent XI, in which he wrote: "When the good of the Church and Christianity is concerned I shed my blood to the last drop, together with the whole kingdom. Since my kingdom and I are two bulwarks of Christianity". Sobieski said that his purpose for going to Vienna was "to proceed to the Holy War, and with God's help to give back the old freedom to besieged Vienna, and thereby help wavering Christendom." Duke Charles, an outstanding commander, wrote about Sobieski that "his very presence means as much as the arrival of the whole army". In the Battle of Vienna, the Turks lost about 25,000 men (plus another 40,000 at The Battle of Parkany that followed). These 65,000 soldiers constituted the cream of the Turkish cavalry on the field, while the allies lost less then 4000 killed and wounded. For Poland-Lithuania, this was her last great moment on center-stage when she saved Europe from Islam. The loot that fell into the hands of the Holy League troops and the Viennese was as huge as their relief, as King Sobieski vividly described in a letter to his wife a few days after the battle: "Ours are treasures unheard of ... tents, sheep, cattle and no small number of camels ... it is victory as nobody ever knew of, the enemy now completely ruined, everything lost for them. They must run for their sheer lives ... Commander Starhemberg hugged and kissed me and called me his savior." Upon entering the abandonded Turkish tents, they found bags of beans - coffee beans revealing how Turks could fight day and night. Shortly thereafter, Polish General Kulczycki opened one of Viennas first coffeehouses and coffee quickly spread across Europe. After the Battle Jan Sobieski entered Vienna in glory. The King and his Polish army had won lots of fame after their victory. Jan Sobieski III was not only looked upon as the savior of Vienna, but as a savior of the whole Europe from the Ottoman Turks. The Holy League, created by several Christian states to fight the common Turkish enemy, is an example of how the European powers formed alliances when common traditions and values were at stake; some have commented that the situation was similar to the Crusades, but on this occasion, the "Crusade" was taking place in the very heart of Europe. To commemorate Sobieskis victory Pope Innocent XI announced 12 September the day of glory of the Holy Name of Mary and to show his admiration for the Poles and their king the Pope accepted the sign of the Crowned Eagle into his papal coat of arms. However, the victory over the Turks and the rescue of the Habsburgs did not bring Poland-Lithuania any advantages. The Commonwealth did not regain Kamieniec, the region of Podolia and the right-bank Ukraine (they returned to Poland after 16 year old war with Turkey). Yet, Austria was strengthened and it was one of Poland-Lithuania invaders in the 18th century. However, Sobieski could not foresee that. The posterity always remembered him with gratitude. King Jan III Sobieski has been rightly associated with the greatness of the former Commonwealth and as a defender of Christianity and vanquisher of the Turks. Homework:

Słowa kluczowe:

sobieski, krol, polska, vienna, odsiecz wiedenska

Dodane: 10 Czerwiec 2015 18:37 CET przez greg (Gregory W)
Odsłon: 1730

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